3 Million Bitcoin in 2 Seconds: Google Quantum Computer

Bitcoin mentioned around Reddit: New Quantum Computer Could Break any Encrypted Device /r/Futurology

Bitcoin mentioned around Reddit: New Quantum Computer Could Break any Encrypted Device /Futurology submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

This is a public service announcement to anyone who's foolish enough to still be using windows

This is a public service announcement to anyone who's foolish enough to still be using windows 10, windows 8, windows 7, vista, and also windows xp. your operating system is now fully compromised, and no, this isn't the same as indian scammers trying to hold your data hostage for google play cards or pictures of bobs and vagene or the cia backdooring your operating system so that they can spy on you it is far worse then that the international hacker known as 4chan has successfuly reverse engineered your operating system they know the sorce code, they've observed all of windows xp's vulnerabilities which means they know the vulnerabilities of all windows operating systems that have come after it because let's face it ever since windows xp all microsoft has really done is create some new themes for your desktop and add more spyware to windows and also forcefully push out updates, and things are about to get even worse, you thought viruses like wannacry caused a lot of damage? that's childsplay. the viruses of old were created by much less skilled hackers that didn't even have the source code of your operating system but now microsoft's spaghetti code is out in the open everybody can see it and your computer is more screwed then an unchaperoned toddler on epstein's island dring a bill clinton visit your kernel is going down faster then a golden retriever at the atf's headquarters. now before you go into full panic mode and start freaking out there are some solutions for you to continue using your computer, my personal recommendation is to load up dban, completely remove any trace of windows, or any other proprietary bullshit operating system that came with your computer, and then install gentoo and use that for the rest of eternity to do your computing. if you can't figure out how to use gentoo then you have the option of using linux mint which is another approved gnu/linux operating system that is more noob friendly and kind of similar to windows in the layout just minus all the horrible bullcrap and spaghetti code that makes up windows. if you can't figure out how to use linux mint then you should just sell your computer, purchase a horse and buggy, and go be amish in a field somewhere because it's no longer safe for you to have a computer or really any electronic device for that matter. hopefully the many years of you beating off to cam girls will translate into good butter churning skills so you can earn a living as an amish person. if you fail to comply you are going to get updates forcefully pushed to your operating system which has been happening for a while now because let's face it, microsoft has never even heard of the word consent, but instead of these updates coming from microsoft themself, bill gates himself, they are going to be coming from the hacker known as 4chan and you will soon experience strange behavior in your operating system, internet explorer or microsoft edge or whatever the hell they're calling that crap these days will be replaced with pale moon or a similar furry browser. every day the wallpaper on your desktop is going to become an anime girl that is more and more lewd and vaguely underage as time goes on all of your home videos will be replaced by forceful tentacle hentai, all of your family photos are going to be replaced with pepes that become more and more racist as time goes on, oh and also your webcam will permanently live stream to liveleak so watch out for chinese truck drivers and off-duty brazzilian police officers. now i don't want to hear any of you wondering all of a sudden oh woe is me why does something like this have to happen to me no you've been warned for years and years about the dangers of proprietary software and yet you did nothing, richard stallman went out of his way to make speeches at college campuses all across the world even doing some in spanish so that he can reach a wider audience and going days without a proper meal this man had to subsist on nutrients from the bottom of his foot and yet you did nothing, edward snowden revealed that bioluminescent goverment agents were living in your computer watching you watch cam girls and browse old memes that washed up on the shores of reddit all under the guise of stopping terrorism and had to flee the united states and go live in a russian airport bathroom and yet you continued using windows purchasing a new copy every few years making bill gates a gorillianare in the process so that he could get ot his end goal of injecting windows updates directly into the bloodstream of every person in the world and newborn babies and yet you kept on using windows even though each new version removed more and more of your rights and became more and more bloated but now 4chan, the hacker, has taken it to the extreme. you will no longer be using your operating system it will se you, it will require a minimum of 2 terabytes of ram and a quantum cpu just to load up the crypto miner that's going to be required to boot your operating system. now alternatively i have heard directly from the hacker known as 4chan that for one bitcoin you can purchase a subscription of windows xp yotsuba edition which will have most of the restrictions removed however your wallpaper will still be set to a lewd vaguely underage anime girl and your browser will be permanently set to 4channel.org, uh, also microsoft word is going to be replaced with vim so good luck doing your homework on there hopefully you know how to quit out of it. you have been warned now go install gentoo or suffer the consequences or like i said sell all your electronics and go be amish because the amish don't get computer viruses
submitted by bobbyboob6 to copypasta [link] [comments]

I'm trying to be positive but GL's actions are the opposite of intelligence. This is the worst update in A9 history. I'll explain why...

I'm trying to be positive but GL's actions are the opposite of intelligence. This is the worst update in A9 history. I'll explain why...
It's a pretty long rant. You have been warned...
  • Worsened graphics. Same device, much worse graphics for no reason. They literally made the game engine worse.
  • Frame skipping and lagging everywhere. Also game crashes. They said they optimized the game. I bet they forgot to mention that you need a quantum computer to play their casino racing masterpiece.
  • The older bug with the mini map (tap do steer players can't tap in that area) is back.
  • The infamous lagging screen after every freaking race (what the hell are they doing in background that the phones become so hot? bitcoin mining?). They still didn't fix it after the recent hotfix! Who pays these clowns who can't even revert some dumb changes?
  • The unfair SE. There are hardly tokens offered. They keep reducing the rewards until there will be nothing left except uncommon parts and a few credits. They expect us to play hundreds of races for peanuts. The finest greediness. Also how come SE still shares the same tickets pool with daily events? They are different things!
  • Same old stinky GP. Everyone knows what is wrong with this thing that has nothing in common with real grand prixes except the name. Most regular players don't win keys. Why should we even bother anymore?
  • The hard Unleashed event. They put the same required time 0:51 despite the cars having different rankings. They don't have the expression "fair play" in their dictionary.
  • Credits heist is good in theory. In practice they added the awful police besides the aggressive AI to make sure you can't get those credits. They also added stars requirements for good measure. Also they made it that way you need to play too many races if you want all rewards. Efficiency is again not in their dictionary.
  • The new MP format which encourages dumb grinding to get some decent milestones.
  • The club rewards remain a joke.
  • You need to complete 250 conditions in SE just to have the chance to buy packs! Whatever GL idiot who thought of that should have his head smashed on his monitor.
  • They still didn't fix that stupid error with no internet connection! My internet is working, it's not my fault you can't code a decent internet connection algorithm.
  • The cheaters are still dominating MP. The Android version has such a poor security that every schmuck can abuse the game. I wonder if anyone even reads those in game reports or are there as placebo effect.
  • Did you check how much internet traffic this game consumes? What the fxx-k they transfer that A9 needs gigabytes of data every month just to play it?
  • Should I mention the bunch of useless employees called Customer Care? An appendix is more useful than them.
  • etc
But we have emoticons! And new cars while most of us didn't even max out or unlock many of the previous premium cars. Give me a reason why should I keep playing...

I hope your wallet is as big as their greediness..
submitted by SpaceGenesis to Asphalt9 [link] [comments]

ATTENTION WINDOWS USERS, ITS TIME TO STOP!!

This is a public service announcement to anyone who is foolish enough to still be using Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Vista, and also Windows XP. Your operating system is now fully compromised. And no, this isn’t the same as Indian scammers trying to hold your data hostage for Google Play cards or pictures of bob and vagene, or the CIA backdooring your operating system so they can spy on you. It is far worse than that. The international hacker known as 4chan has successfully reverse-engineered your operating system. They know the source code. They have observed all of Windows XP’s vulnerabilities, which means they know the vulnerabilities of all Windows operating systems that have come after it because, let’s face it, ever since Windows XP, all Microsoft has really done is create some new themes for your desktop and add more spyware to Windows, and also forcefully push out updates. And things are about to get even worse. You though viruses like WannaCry caused a lot of damage? That’s child’s play. The viruses of old were created by much less skilled hackers that didn’t even have the source code of your operating system. But now, Microsoft’s spaghetti code is out in the open. Everybody can see it, and your computer is more screwed than an unchaperoned toddler on Epstein's island during a Bill Clinton visit. Your kernel is going down faster than a golden retriever at the ATF’s headquarters.
Now, before you go into full panic mode and start freaking out, there are some solutions for you to continue using your computer. My personal recommendation is to load up DBAN, completely remove any trace of Windows or any other proprietary bullshit operating system that came with your computer, and then install Gentoo. And use that for the rest of eternity to do your computing. If you can’t figure out how to use Gentoo, then you have the option of using Linux Mint, which is another approved GNU/Linux operating system that is more noob-friendly and kind of similar to Windows and its layout, just minus all the horrible bullcrap and spaghetti code that makes up Windows. If you can’t figure out how to install Linux Mint, then you should just sell your computer, purchase a horse and buggy, and go be Amish in a field somewhere because it’s no longer safe for you to have a computer or really any electronic device for that matter. Hopefully, the many years of you beating off to camgirls will translate into good butter-churning skills so that you can earn a living as an Amish person.
If you fail to comply, you are going to get updates forcefully pushed to your operating system, which has been happening for a while now, because let’s face it, Microsoft has never even heard of the word “consent.” But instead of these updates coming from Microsoft themselves—Bill Gates himself—they are going to be coming from the hacker known as 4chan, and you will soon experience strange behavior in your operating system. Internet Explorer or Microsoft Edge, or whatever the hell they’re calling that crap these days, will be replaced with Pale Moon or a similar furry browser. Every day, the wallpaper on your desktop is going to become an anime girl that is more and more lewd and vaguely underage as time goes on. All of your home videos will be replaced by forceful tentacle hentai. All of your family photos are going to be replaced with Pepes that become more and more racist as time goes on. Oh, and also your webcam will permanently livestream to LiveLeak, so watch out for Chinese truck drivers and off-duty Brazilian police officers. Now, I don’t want to hear any of you wondering “Why is this happening all the sudden?”, “Oh, woe is me, why does something like this have to happen to me?” No. You’ve been warned for years and years about the dangers of proprietary software, and yet, you did nothing. Richard Stallman went out of his way to make speeches at college campuses all across the world, even doing some in Spanish so that he can reach a wider audience, and going days without a proper meal. This man had to subsist on nutrients from the bottom of his foot, and yet, you still did nothing. Edward Snowden revealed that bioluminescing government agents were living in your computer, watching you watch camgirls and browse old memes that washed up on the shores of Reddit, all under the guise of stopping terrorism. And he had to flee the United States and go live in a Russian airport bathroom, and yet, you continued on using Windows, purchasing a new copy every few years, making Bill Gates a gorrilianaire in the process, so that he can get to his end goal of injecting Windows updates directly into the bloodstream of every person in the world and newborn babies. And yet, you kept on using Windows, even though each new version removed even more of your rights and became more and more bloated.
But now, 4chan the hacker has taken it to the extreme. You will no longer be using your operating system. It will use you. It will require a minimum of 2 TB of RAM and a quantum CPU just to load up the cryptominer that’s going to be required to boot your operating system. Now alternatively, I have heard directly from the hacker known as 4chan that for 1 bitcoin, you can purchase a subscription of Windows XP Yotsuba Edition, which will have most of the restrictions removed. However, your wallpaper will still be set to a lewd, vaguely underage anime girl, and your browser’s homepage will be permanently set to 4chan.org. Also, Microsoft Word is going to be replaced with vim, so good luck doing your homework on there. Hopefully you know how to quit out of it. You have been warned. Now go install Gentoo or suffer the consequences. Or like I said, sell all of your electronics and go be Amish, because the Amish don’t get computer viruses.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iqRj7cW-vjs
submitted by SMF67 to LinuxCirclejerk [link] [comments]

ATTENTION WINDOWS USERS, ITS TIME TO STOP!!

This is a public service announcement to anyone who is foolish enough to still be using Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Vista, and also Windows XP. Your operating system is now fully compromised and no, this isn't the same as Indian scammers trying to hold your data hostage for Google play cards or pictures of bobs and vagene or the CIA backdooring your operating system so that they can spy on you, it is far worse than that. The international hacker known as 4chan has successfully reverse engineered your operating system. They know the source code, they've observed all of windows XP's vulnerabilities which means they know the vulnerabilities of all Windows operating systems that have come after it because let's face it, ever since Windows XP all Microsoft has really done is create some new themes for your desktop and add more spyware to Windows, and also forcefully pushed out updates, and things are about to get even worse. You thought viruses like wannacry caused a lot of damage? That's child's play. The viruses of old were created by much less skilled hackers that didn't even have the source code of your operating system, but now Microsoft spaghetti code is out in the open, everybody can see it, and your computer is more screwed than an un-chaperoned toddler on Epstein's island during a Bill Clinton visit. Your kernel is going down faster than a golden retriever at the ATF headquarters. Now before you go into full panic mode and start freaking out, there are some solutions for you to continue using your computer. My personal recommendation is to load up DBAN to completely remove any trace of Windows or any other proprietary bullshit operating system that came with your computer, and then install Gentoo and use that for the rest of eternity to do your computing. If you can't figure out how to use Gentoo then you have the option of using Linux Mint, which is another approved GNU/Linux operating system that is more noob friendly and kind of similar to Windows in the layout just minus all of the horrible bull crap and spaghetti code that makes up Windows. If you can't figure out how to install Linux Mint then you should just sell your computer purchase a horse and buggy and go be Amish in a field somewhere, because it's no longer safe for you to have a computer or really any electronic device for that matter. Hopefully the many years of you beating off to cam girls will translate into good butter churning skills so that you can earn a living as an honest person. If you fail to comply you are going to get updates forcefully pushed into your operating system which has been happening for a while now because let's face it, Microsoft has never even heard of the word consent. But instead of these updates coming from Microsoft themself, Bill Gates himself they're going to be coming from the hacker known as 4chan, and you'll soon experience strange behavior in your operating system internet explorer or Microsoft edge or whatever the hell they're calling that crap these days will be replaced with pale moon or a similar furry browser. Every day the wallpaper on your desktop is going to become an anime girl that gets more lewd and vaguely under age as time goes on, all of your home videos will be replaced by forceful tentacle hentai, all of your family photos are going to be replaced with Pepes that become more and more racist as time goes on. Oh, and also your webcam will permanently live stream to liveleak so watch out for Chinese truck drivers an off duty Brazilian police officers. Now I don't want to hear any of you wondering why is this happening all of a sudden "woe is me why does something like this have to happen to me?" No you've been warned for years and years about the dangers of proprietary software and yet you did nothing. Richard Stallman went out of his way to make speeches at college campuses all across the world, even doing some in Spanish so that he can reach a wider audience, going days without a proper meal. This man had to subsist on nutrients from the bottom of his foot, and yet you still did nothing. Edward Snowden revealed that bioluminescent government agents were living in your computer watching you watch cam girls and browse old memes that washed up on the shores of Reddit, all under the guise of stopping terrorism, and he had to flee the United States and go live in a Russian airport bathroom, and yet you continued on using Windows, purchasing a new copy every few years making Bill Gates a gorillionaire in the process, so that he could get to his end goal of injecting Windows updates directly into the bloodstream of every person in the world in newborn babies, and yet you kept on using Windows even though each new version removed more and more of your rights and became more and more bloated. But now 4chan the hacker has taken it to the extreme. You will no longer be using your operating system, it will use you. It will require a minimum of 2 terabytes of ram and a quantum CPU just to load up the crypto miner that's going to be required to boot your operating system. Now alternatively, I have heard directly from the hacker known as 4chan on that for one bitcoin you can purchase a subscription of Windows XP Yotsuba Edition, which will have most of the restrictions removed. However your wallpaper will still be set to a lewd vaguely under age anime girl and your browser's homepage will be permanently set to 4channel.org. Also Microsoft Word is going to be replaced with Vim, so good luck doing your homework on there, hopefully you know how to quit out of it. You have been warned. Now go install Gentoo or suffer the consequences. Or like I said, sell all of your electronics and go be Amish, because the Amish don't get computer viruses.
submitted by dogecharger3000xd to copypasta [link] [comments]

ATTENTION WINDOWS USERS, ITS TIME TO STOP!!

This is a public service announcement to anyone who is foolish enough to still be using windows 10, windows 8, windows 7, vista and also windows xp.
Your operating system is now fully compromised and no this isn't the same as indian scammers trying to hold your data hostage for google play cards or pictures of bobs and vageen, the cia backdooring your operating system so that they can spy on you, it is far worse than that.
The international hacker known as 4chan has successfully reverse engineered your operating system.
👏They 👏know👏the 👏source👏code!
They've observed all of windows xp vulnerabilities, which means they know the vulnerabilities of all windows operating systems that have come after it because let's face it ever since windows xp all microsoft has really done is create some new themes for your desktop and add more spyware to windows and also forcefully push out updates and things are about to get even worse, you thought viruses like wannacry caused a lot of damage that's child play, the viruses of old were created by much less skilled hackers that didn't even had the source of your operating system but now microsoft spaghetti code is out in the open every body can see it and your computer is screwed than a unchaperoned toddler on epstein's island during a bill clinton visit your kernel is going down faster than a golden retriever at the etfs headquarters
now before you go into full panic mode and start freaking out there are some solutions for you to continue using your computer, my personal recommendation is for you to load up dban, completely remove any trace of windows or any other proprietary bullshit operating system that came with your computer and then install gentoo and use that for rest of eternity to do your computing, if you can't figure out how to use gentoo then you have the option of using linux mint which is another approved gnu/linux operating system that is more noob friendly and kind of similar to windows and the layout just minus all of the horrible bullcrap and spaghetti code that makes all of windows.
if you can't figure out how to install linux mint then you should just sell your computer purchase a horse and buggy and go be amish in a field somewhere because it is no longer safe for you to have a computer or really any electronic device for that matter,
hopefully that many years of you beating off to cam girls will translate into good butter churning skills so that you can earn a living as a amish person if you fail to comply you are going get updates forcefully pushed to your operating system which has been happening for awhile now because let's face it microsoft has never even heard of the word consent but instead of these updates coming from microsoft themself,bill gates himself, they are going to be coming from the hacker known as 4chan you will soon experience strange behaviour from your operating system internet explorer or microsoft edge or whatever the hell they are calling that crap these days will be replaced with pale moon or a similar furry browser every day the wallpaper on your desktop is going to become a anime girl that is more and more lewd and vaguely underage as time goes on, all of your home videos will be replaced by forceful tentacle hentai, all of your family photos will be replaced with pepes that become more and more racist as time goes on
oh and also your webcam will permanently livestream to live leak so watch out for chinese truck drivers and off duty brazilian police officers
now I don't want to hear any of you wondering
“why is this happening all of a sudden
oh always me why do something like this have to happens to me”
no you have been warned for years and years about the dangers of proprietary software and yet you did nothing, richard stallman went out of his way yo make speeches in college campuses all across the world even doing some in spanish so that he could reach a more wider audience and going days without a proper meal this man had to subsiste on nutrients from the bottom of his foot and yet you still did nothing
edward snowden revealed that bioluminescent government agents were living in your computer watching you watch camgirls and browse old memes that washed up on the shores of reddit all under the guise of stopping terrorism and he had ot flee the united states and live in a russian airport brathroom and yet you continued on using windows purchasing a new copy every few years making bill gate a grilionaire in the process so that he could get to his end goal of injecting windows updates directly into the blood stream of every person in the world and newborn babies and yet you kept on using windows even tough each new version removed more and more of your rights and became more and more bloated
but now 4chan the hacker has taking it to the extreme you will no longer be using your operating system it will use you it will require a minimum of 2 terabytes of ram and a quantum cpu just to load up the crypto miner that's going to be required to boot up your operating system
now alternatively i have heard directly from the hacker known as 4chan that for 1 bitcoin you can purchase a subscription of windows xp yotsuba edition that will have most of the restrictions removed however you wallpaper will still be set to a lewd vaguely underage anime girl and your browser homepage will be permanently set to 4chan.org also microsoft word is going to be replace with vim so good luck doing your homework on there hopefully you know how to quit out of it
you have been warned now go and install gentoo or suffer the consequences or like I said sell all of your electronics and go be amish because the amish don't get computer viruses!!
Sources: https://imgur.com/a/nqiyQ
https://youtu.be/iqRj7cW-vjs
submitted by thesuperiordalek to copypasta [link] [comments]

ATTENTION WINDOWS USERS, ITS TIME TO STOP!!

This is a public service announcement to anyone who is foolish enough to still be using Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Vista, and also Windows XP.
Your operating system is now fully compromised. and no, this isn't the same as Indian scammers trying to hold your data hostage for Google play cards or pictures of bobs and vagens or the CIA backdooring your operating system so they can spy on you, it is far worse than that.
The international hacker known as 4Chan has successfully reverse-engineered your operating system, THEY KNOW THE SOURCE CODE, they observed all of Windows XP vulnerabilities which means they know the vulnerabilities of all Windows operating systems that have come after it, because, let's face it, ever since Windows XP all Microsoft has really done is create some new themes for your desktop and add more spyware to Windows and also push out updates. and things are about to get EVEN WORSE, you thought viruses like WannaCry cause a lot of damage? that's child's play, the viruses of old were created by much less skilled hackers that didn't even have the source code of your operating system but now, Microsoft spaghetti code, it's out in the open, everybody can see it and your computer is more screwd than an unchaperoned toddler on Epstein's island during a Bill Clinton visit.
YOUR KERNEL is going down faster than a golden retriever at the ATF's headquarters.
Now, before you go in full panic mode and start freaking out, there are some solutions for you to continue using your computer.
My personal recommendation is to load up DBAN, completely remove any trace of Windows or any other proprietary bullshit operating system that came with your computer and then, install Gentoo, and use that for the rest of eternity to do your computing, if you can't figure out how to use Gentoo, then you have the option of using Linux Mint, which is another approved GNU/Linux operating system that is more noob friendly and kind of similar to Windows and the layout just minus all of the horrible bullcrap and spaghetti code that makes up Windows.
If you can't figure out how to install Linux Mint then you should just sell your computer, purchase a horse and buggy and go be amish in a field somewhere because it's no longer safe for you to have a computer or really any electronic device for that matter, hopefully, the many years of you beating off to cam girls will translate into good butter churning skills so that you can earn a living as an Amish person.
If you fail to comply, you are going to get updates forcefully pushed to your operating system which has been happening for a while now, because, let's face it, Microsoft has never even heard of the word consent, but instead of these updates coming from Microsoft themself, Bill Gates himself, they are going to be coming from the hacker known as 4chan, and you will soon experience strange behavior in your operating system.
Internet Explorer or Microsoft Edge or whatever the hell they're calling that crap these days will be replaced with Pale Moon or a similar furry browser.
Every day the wallpaper on your desktop is going to become an anime girl that is more and more lewd and vaguely underage as time goes on, all of your home videos will be replaced with forceful tentacle hentai, all of your family photos are going to be replaced with pepes that become more and more racist as time goes on.
Oh and also, your webcam will permanently live stream to live league so watch out for Chinese truck drivers and off-duty Brazilian police officers.
Now, I don't want to hear any of your wondering "why is this happening all of the sudden oh woe ways me, why does something like this have to happen to me", no, you've been warned for years and years about the dangers of proprietary software, and yet, you did nothing.
Richard Stallman went out of his way to make speeches at college campuses, all across the world, even doing some in Spanish, so he can reach a wider audience, and going days without a proper meal, this man had to subsist on nutrients from the bottom of his foot and yet, you still did nothing.
Edward Snowden revealed that bioluminescent government agents were living in your computer watching you watch cam girls and browse old memes that washed up on the shores of Reddit, ALL under the guise of stopping terrorism, and he had to flee the united states and go live in a Russian airport bathroom, and yet, you continued on using Windows.
Purchasing a new copy every few years making Bill Gates a grillionaire in the process so he could get to his end goal of injecting Windows updates directly into the bloodstream of every person in the world, in newborn babies, and yet, you kept on using Windows, even though each new version removed more and more of your rights and became more and more bloated, but now, 4chan the hacker has taken it to the extreme, you will no longer be using your operating system.
It will use you, it will require a minimum of 2 terabytes of ram and a quantum CPU just to load up the crypto miner that's going to be required to boot your operating system.
Now alternatively, I have heard directly from the hacker known as 4chan that for one bitcoin, you can purchase a subscription of Windows XP Yotsuba edition which will have most of the restrictions removed, however, your wallpaper will still be set to a lewd vaguely underage anime girl and your browser's homepage will be permanently set to 4channel.org, also Microsoft Word is going to be replaced with Vim, so, good luck doing your homework on there, hopefully, you know how to quit out of it, you have been warned, now go, install Gentoo or suffer the consequences or like I said, sell all of your electronics and go be Amish because the Amish don't get computer viruses.
submitted by E404NNF to copypasta [link] [comments]

Technical: Taproot: Why Activate?

This is a follow-up on https://old.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/hqzp14/technical_the_path_to_taproot_activation/
Taproot! Everybody wants it!! But... you might ask yourself: sure, everybody else wants it, but why would I, sovereign Bitcoin HODLer, want it? Surely I can be better than everybody else because I swapped XXX fiat for Bitcoin unlike all those nocoiners?
And it is important for you to know the reasons why you, o sovereign Bitcoiner, would want Taproot activated. After all, your nodes (or the nodes your wallets use, which if you are SPV, you hopefully can pester to your wallet vendoimplementor about) need to be upgraded in order for Taproot activation to actually succeed instead of becoming a hot sticky mess.
First, let's consider some principles of Bitcoin.
I'm sure most of us here would agree that the above are very important principles of Bitcoin and that these are principles we would not be willing to remove. If anything, we would want those principles strengthened (especially the last one, financial privacy, which current Bitcoin is only sporadically strong with: you can get privacy, it just requires effort to do so).
So, how does Taproot affect those principles?

Taproot and Your /Coins

Most HODLers probably HODL their coins in singlesig addresses. Sadly, switching to Taproot would do very little for you (it gives a mild discount at spend time, at the cost of a mild increase in fee at receive time (paid by whoever sends to you, so if it's a self-send from a P2PKH or bech32 address, you pay for this); mostly a wash).
(technical details: a Taproot output is 1 version byte + 32 byte public key, while a P2WPKH (bech32 singlesig) output is 1 version byte + 20 byte public key hash, so the Taproot output spends 12 bytes more; spending from a P2WPKH requires revealing a 32-byte public key later, which is not needed with Taproot, and Taproot signatures are about 9 bytes smaller than P2WPKH signatures, but the 32 bytes plus 9 bytes is divided by 4 because of the witness discount, so it saves about 11 bytes; mostly a wash, it increases blockweight by about 1 virtual byte, 4 weight for each Taproot-output-input, compared to P2WPKH-output-input).
However, as your HODLings grow in value, you might start wondering if multisignature k-of-n setups might be better for the security of your savings. And it is in multisignature that Taproot starts to give benefits!
Taproot switches to using Schnorr signing scheme. Schnorr makes key aggregation -- constructing a single public key from multiple public keys -- almost as trivial as adding numbers together. "Almost" because it involves some fairly advanced math instead of simple boring number adding, but hey when was the last time you added up your grocery list prices by hand huh?
With current P2SH and P2WSH multisignature schemes, if you have a 2-of-3 setup, then to spend, you need to provide two different signatures from two different public keys. With Taproot, you can create, using special moon math, a single public key that represents your 2-of-3 setup. Then you just put two of your devices together, have them communicate to each other (this can be done airgapped, in theory, by sending QR codes: the software to do this is not even being built yet, but that's because Taproot hasn't activated yet!), and they will make a single signature to authorize any spend from your 2-of-3 address. That's 73 witness bytes -- 18.25 virtual bytes -- of signatures you save!
And if you decide that your current setup with 1-of-1 P2PKH / P2WPKH addresses is just fine as-is: well, that's the whole point of a softfork: backwards-compatibility; you can receive from Taproot users just fine, and once your wallet is updated for Taproot-sending support, you can send to Taproot users just fine as well!
(P2WPKH and P2WSH -- SegWit v0 -- addresses start with bc1q; Taproot -- SegWit v1 --- addresses start with bc1p, in case you wanted to know the difference; in bech32 q is 0, p is 1)
Now how about HODLers who keep all, or some, of their coins on custodial services? Well, any custodial service worth its salt would be doing at least 2-of-3, or probably something even bigger, like 11-of-15. So your custodial service, if it switched to using Taproot internally, could save a lot more (imagine an 11-of-15 getting reduced from 11 signatures to just 1!), which --- we can only hope! --- should translate to lower fees and better customer service from your custodial service!
So I think we can say, very accurately, that the Bitcoin principle --- that YOU are in control of your money --- can only be helped by Taproot (if you are doing multisignature), and, because P2PKH and P2WPKH remain validly-usable addresses in a Taproot future, will not be harmed by Taproot. Its benefit to this principle might be small (it mostly only benefits multisignature users) but since it has no drawbacks with this (i.e. singlesig users can continue to use P2WPKH and P2PKH still) this is still a nice, tidy win!
(even singlesig users get a minor benefit, in that multisig users will now reduce their blockchain space footprint, so that fees can be kept low for everybody; so for example even if you have your single set of private keys engraved on titanium plates sealed in an airtight box stored in a safe buried in a desert protected by angry nomads riding giant sandworms because you're the frickin' Kwisatz Haderach, you still gain some benefit from Taproot)
And here's the important part: if P2PKH/P2WPKH is working perfectly fine with you and you decide to never use Taproot yourself, Taproot will not affect you detrimentally. First do no harm!

Taproot and Your Contracts

No one is an island, no one lives alone. Give and you shall receive. You know: by trading with other people, you can gain expertise in some obscure little necessity of the world (and greatly increase your productivity in that little field), and then trade the products of your expertise for necessities other people have created, all of you thereby gaining gains from trade.
So, contracts, which are basically enforceable agreements that facilitate trading with people who you do not personally know and therefore might not trust.
Let's start with a simple example. You want to buy some gewgaws from somebody. But you don't know them personally. The seller wants the money, you want their gewgaws, but because of the lack of trust (you don't know them!! what if they're scammers??) neither of you can benefit from gains from trade.
However, suppose both of you know of some entity that both of you trust. That entity can act as a trusted escrow. The entity provides you security: this enables the trade, allowing both of you to get gains from trade.
In Bitcoin-land, this can be implemented as a 2-of-3 multisignature. The three signatories in the multisgnature would be you, the gewgaw seller, and the escrow. You put the payment for the gewgaws into this 2-of-3 multisignature address.
Now, suppose it turns out neither of you are scammers (whaaaat!). You receive the gewgaws just fine and you're willing to pay up for them. Then you and the gewgaw seller just sign a transaction --- you and the gewgaw seller are 2, sufficient to trigger the 2-of-3 --- that spends from the 2-of-3 address to a singlesig the gewgaw seller wants (or whatever address the gewgaw seller wants).
But suppose some problem arises. The seller gave you gawgews instead of gewgaws. Or you decided to keep the gewgaws but not sign the transaction to release the funds to the seller. In either case, the escrow is notified, and if it can sign with you to refund the funds back to you (if the seller was a scammer) or it can sign with the seller to forward the funds to the seller (if you were a scammer).
Taproot helps with this: like mentioned above, it allows multisignature setups to produce only one signature, reducing blockchain space usage, and thus making contracts --- which require multiple people, by definition, you don't make contracts with yourself --- is made cheaper (which we hope enables more of these setups to happen for more gains from trade for everyone, also, moon and lambos).
(technology-wise, it's easier to make an n-of-n than a k-of-n, making a k-of-n would require a complex setup involving a long ritual with many communication rounds between the n participants, but an n-of-n can be done trivially with some moon math. You can, however, make what is effectively a 2-of-3 by using a three-branch SCRIPT: either 2-of-2 of you and seller, OR 2-of-2 of you and escrow, OR 2-of-2 of escrow and seller. Fortunately, Taproot adds a facility to embed a SCRIPT inside a public key, so you can have a 2-of-2 Taprooted address (between you and seller) with a SCRIPT branch that can instead be spent with 2-of-2 (you + escrow) OR 2-of-2 (seller + escrow), which implements the three-branched SCRIPT above. If neither of you are scammers (hopefully the common case) then you both sign using your keys and never have to contact the escrow, since you are just using the escrow public key without coordinating with them (because n-of-n is trivial but k-of-n requires setup with communication rounds), so in the "best case" where both of you are honest traders, you also get a privacy boost, in that the escrow never learns you have been trading on gewgaws, I mean ewww, gawgews are much better than gewgaws and therefore I now judge you for being a gewgaw enthusiast, you filthy gewgawer).

Taproot and Your Contracts, Part 2: Cryptographic Boogaloo

Now suppose you want to buy some data instead of things. For example, maybe you have some closed-source software in trial mode installed, and want to pay the developer for the full version. You want to pay for an activation code.
This can be done, today, by using an HTLC. The developer tells you the hash of the activation code. You pay to an HTLC, paying out to the developer if it reveals the preimage (the activation code), or refunding the money back to you after a pre-agreed timeout. If the developer claims the funds, it has to reveal the preimage, which is the activation code, and you can now activate your software. If the developer does not claim the funds by the timeout, you get refunded.
And you can do that, with HTLCs, today.
Of course, HTLCs do have problems:
Fortunately, with Schnorr (which is enabled by Taproot), we can now use the Scriptless Script constuction by Andrew Poelstra. This Scriptless Script allows a new construction, the PTLC or Pointlocked Timelocked Contract. Instead of hashes and preimages, just replace "hash" with "point" and "preimage" with "scalar".
Or as you might know them: "point" is really "public key" and "scalar" is really a "private key". What a PTLC does is that, given a particular public key, the pointlocked branch can be spent only if the spender reveals the private key of the given public key to you.
Another nice thing with PTLCs is that they are deniable. What appears onchain is just a single 2-of-2 signature between you and the developemanufacturer. It's like a magic trick. This signature has no special watermarks, it's a perfectly normal signature (the pledge). However, from this signature, plus some datta given to you by the developemanufacturer (known as the adaptor signature) you can derive the private key of a particular public key you both agree on (the turn). Anyone scraping the blockchain will just see signatures that look just like every other signature, and as long as nobody manages to hack you and get a copy of the adaptor signature or the private key, they cannot get the private key behind the public key (point) that the pointlocked branch needs (the prestige).
(Just to be clear, the public key you are getting the private key from, is distinct from the public key that the developemanufacturer will use for its funds. The activation key is different from the developer's onchain Bitcoin key, and it is the activation key whose private key you will be learning, not the developer's/manufacturer's onchain Bitcoin key).
So:
Taproot lets PTLCs exist onchain because they enable Schnorr, which is a requirement of PTLCs / Scriptless Script.
(technology-wise, take note that Scriptless Script works only for the "pointlocked" branch of the contract; you need normal Script, or a pre-signed nLockTimed transaction, for the "timelocked" branch. Since Taproot can embed a script, you can have the Taproot pubkey be a 2-of-2 to implement the Scriptless Script "pointlocked" branch, then have a hidden script that lets you recover the funds with an OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY after the timeout if the seller does not claim the funds.)

Quantum Quibbles!

Now if you were really paying attention, you might have noticed this parenthetical:
(technical details: a Taproot output is 1 version byte + 32 byte public key, while a P2WPKH (bech32 singlesig) output is 1 version byte + 20 byte public key hash...)
So wait, Taproot uses raw 32-byte public keys, and not public key hashes? Isn't that more quantum-vulnerable??
Well, in theory yes. In practice, they probably are not.
It's not that hashes can be broken by quantum computes --- they're still not. Instead, you have to look at how you spend from a P2WPKH/P2PKH pay-to-public-key-hash.
When you spend from a P2PKH / P2WPKH, you have to reveal the public key. Then Bitcoin hashes it and checks if this matches with the public-key-hash, and only then actually validates the signature for that public key.
So an unconfirmed transaction, floating in the mempools of nodes globally, will show, in plain sight for everyone to see, your public key.
(public keys should be public, that's why they're called public keys, LOL)
And if quantum computers are fast enough to be of concern, then they are probably fast enough that, in the several minutes to several hours from broadcast to confirmation, they have already cracked the public key that is openly broadcast with your transaction. The owner of the quantum computer can now replace your unconfirmed transaction with one that pays the funds to itself. Even if you did not opt-in RBF, miners are still incentivized to support RBF on RBF-disabled transactions.
So the extra hash is not as significant a protection against quantum computers as you might think. Instead, the extra hash-and-compare needed is just extra validation effort.
Further, if you have ever, in the past, spent from the address, then there exists already a transaction indelibly stored on the blockchain, openly displaying the public key from which quantum computers can derive the private key. So those are still vulnerable to quantum computers.
For the most part, the cryptographers behind Taproot (and Bitcoin Core) are of the opinion that quantum computers capable of cracking Bitcoin pubkeys are unlikely to appear within a decade or two.
So:
For now, the homomorphic and linear properties of elliptic curve cryptography provide a lot of benefits --- particularly the linearity property is what enables Scriptless Script and simple multisignature (i.e. multisignatures that are just 1 signature onchain). So it might be a good idea to take advantage of them now while we are still fairly safe against quantum computers. It seems likely that quantum-safe signature schemes are nonlinear (thus losing these advantages).

Summary

I Wanna Be The Taprooter!

So, do you want to help activate Taproot? Here's what you, mister sovereign Bitcoin HODLer, can do!

But I Hate Taproot!!

That's fine!

Discussions About Taproot Activation

submitted by almkglor to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

ATTENTION WINDOWS USERS, ITS TIME TO STOP!!

this is a public service announcement to anyone who is foolish enough to still be using windows 10 windows 8 windows 7 vista and also windows xp your operating system is now fully compromised and no this isn't the same as indian scammers trying to hold your data hostage for google play cards or pictures of bob's and vagine or the cia backdooring your operating system so that they can spy on you it is far worse than that the international hacker known as 4chan has successfully reverse engineered your operating system they know the source code they've observed all of windows xp's vulnerabilities which means they know the vulnerabilities of all windows operating systems that have come after it because let's face it ever since windows xp all microsoft has really done is create some new themes for your desktop and add more spyware to windows and also forcefully push out updates and things are about to get even worse you thought viruses like wannacry caused a lot of damage that's child's play the viruses of old were created by much less skilled hackers that didn't even have the source code of your operating system but now microsoft's spaghetti code it's out in the open everybody can see it and your computer is more screwed than an unchaperoned toddler on epstein's island during a bill clinton visit your colonel is going down faster than a golden retriever at the atf's headquarters now before you go into full panic mode and start freaking out there are some solutions for you to continue using your computer my personal recommendation is to load up d-band completely remove any trace of windows or any other proprietary operating system that came with your computer and then installed gentoo and use that for the rest of eternity to do your computing if you can't figure out how to use gentoo then you have the option of using linux mint which is another approved gnu slash linux operating system that is more noob friendly and kind of similar to windows in the layout just minus all of the horrible bullcrap and spaghetti code that makes up windows if you can't figure out how to install linux mint then you should just sell your computer purchase a horse and buggy and go be amish in a field somewhere because it's no longer safe for you to have a computer or really any electronic device for that matter hopefully the many years of you beating off to cam girls will translate into good butter churning skills so that you can earn a living as an amish person if you fail to comply you are going to get updates forcefully pushed to your operating system which has been happening for a while now because let's face it microsoft has never even heard of the word consent but instead of these updates coming from microsoft themself bill gates himself they are going to be coming from the hacker known as 4chan and you will soon experience strange behavior in your operating system internet explorer or microsoft edge or whatever the hell they're calling that crap these days will be replaced with pale moon or a similar furry browser every day the wallpaper on your desktop is going to become an anime girl that is more and more lewd and vaguely underage as time goes on all of your home videos will be replaced by forceful tentacle hentai all of your family photos are going to be replaced with pepes that become more and more racist as time goes on oh and also your webcam will permanently live stream to live league so watch out for chinese truck drivers and off-duty brazilian police officers now i don't want to hear any of you wondering why is this happening all of a sudden oh woe ways me why does something like this have to happen to me no you've been warned for years and years about the dangers of proprietary software and yet you did nothing richard stallman went out of his way to make speeches at college campuses all across the world even doing some in spanish so that he can reach a wider audience in going days without a proper meal this man had to subsist on nutrients from the bottom of his foot and yet you still did nothing edward snowden revealed that bioluminescent government agents were living in your computer watching you watch cam girls and browse old memes that washed up on the shores of reddit all under the guise of stopping terrorism and he had to flee the united states and go live in a russian airport bathroom and yet you continued on using windows purchasing a new copy every few years making bill gates a grillionaire in the process so that he could get to his end goal of injecting windows updates directly into the bloodstream of every person in the world in newborn babies and yet you kept on using windows even though each new version removed more and more of your rights and became more and more bloated but now 4chan the hacker has taken it to the extreme you will no longer be using your operating system it will use you it will require a minimum of 2 terabytes of ram and a quantum cpu just to load up the crypto miner that's going to be required to boot your operating system now alternatively i have heard directly from the hacker known as 4chan that for one bitcoin you can purchase a subscription of windows xp yotsuba edition which will have most of the restrictions removed however your wallpaper will still be set to a lewd vaguely underage anime girl and your browser's homepage will be permanently set to 4channel.org uh also microsoft word is going to repl be replaced with vem so good luck doing your homework on there hopefully you know how to quit out of it you have been warned now go install gen 2 or suffer the consequences or like i said sell all of your electronics and go be amish because the amish don't get computer viruses
submitted by mirak97 to copypasta [link] [comments]

This is a public service announcement to anyone who's foolish enough to still be using windows

This is a public service announcement to anyone who's foolish enough to still be using windows 10, windows 8, windows 7, vista, and also windows xp. your operating system is now fully compromised, and no, this isn't the same as indian scammers trying to hold your data hostage for google play cards or pictures of bobs and vagene or the cia backdooring your operating system so that they can spy on you it is far worse then that the international hacker known as 4chan has successfuly reverse engineered your operating system they know the sorce code, they've observed all of windows xp's vulnerabilities which means they know the vulnerabilities of all windows operating systems that have come after it because let's face it ever since windows xp all microsoft has really done is create some new themes for your desktop and add more spyware to windows and also forcefully push out updates, and things are about to get even worse, you thought viruses like wannacry caused a lot of damage? that's childsplay. the viruses of old were created by much less skilled hackers that didn't even have the source code of your operating system but now microsoft's spaghetti code is out in the open everybody can see it and your computer is more screwed then an unchaperoned toddler on epstein's island dring a bill clinton visit your kernel is going down faster then a golden retriever at the atf's headquarters. now before you go into full panic mode and start freaking out there are some solutions for you to continue using your computer, my personal recommendation is to load up dban, completely remove any trace of windows, or any other proprietary bullshit operating system that came with your computer, and then install gentoo and use that for the rest of eternity to do your computing. if you can't figure out how to use gentoo then you have the option of using linux mint which is another approved gnu/linux operating system that is more noob friendly and kind of similar to windows in the layout just minus all the horrible bullcrap and spaghetti code that makes up windows. if you can't figure out how to use linux mint then you should just sell your computer, purchase a horse and buggy, and go be amish in a field somewhere because it's no longer safe for you to have a computer or really any electronic device for that matter. hopefully the many years of you beating off to cam girls will translate into good butter churning skills so you can earn a living as an amish person. if you fail to comply you are going to get updates forcefully pushed to your operating system which has been happening for a while now because let's face it, microsoft has never even heard of the word consent, but instead of these updates coming from microsoft themself, bill gates himself, they are going to be coming from the hacker known as 4chan and you will soon experience strange behavior in your operating system, internet explorer or microsoft edge or whatever the hell they're calling that crap these days will be replaced with pale moon or a similar furry browser. every day the wallpaper on your desktop is going to become an anime girl that is more and more lewd and vaguely underage as time goes on all of your home videos will be replaced by forceful tentacle hentai, all of your family photos are going to be replaced with pepes that become more and more racist as time goes on, oh and also your webcam will permanently live stream to liveleak so watch out for chinese truck drivers and off-duty brazzilian police officers. now i don't want to hear any of you wondering all of a sudden oh woe is me why does something like this have to happen to me no you've been warned for years and years about the dangers of proprietary software and yet you did nothing, richard stallman went out of his way to make speeches at college campuses all across the world even doing some in spanish so that he can reach a wider audience and going days without a proper meal this man had to subsist on nutrients from the bottom of his foot and yet you did nothing, edward snowden revealed that bioluminescent goverment agents were living in your computer watching you watch cam girls and browse old memes that washed up on the shores of reddit all under the guise of stopping terrorism and had to flee the united states and go live in a russian airport bathroom and yet you continued using windows purchasing a new copy every few years making bill gates a gorillianare in the process so that he could get ot his end goal of injecting windows updates directly into the bloodstream of every person in the world and newborn babies and yet you kept on using windows even though each new version removed more and more of your rights and became more and more bloated but now 4chan, the hacker, has taken it to the extreme. you will no longer be using your operating system it will se you, it will require a minimum of 2 terabytes of ram and a quantum cpu just to load up the crypto miner that's going to be required to boot your operating system. now alternatively i have heard directly from the hacker known as 4chan that for one bitcoin you can purchase a subscription of windows xp yotsuba edition which will have most of the restrictions removed however your wallpaper will still be set to a lewd vaguely underage anime girl and your browser will be permanently set to 4channel.org, uh, also microsoft word is going to be replaced with vim so good luck doing your homework on there hopefully you know how to quit out of it. you have been warned now go install gentoo or suffer the consequences or like i said sell all your electronics and go be amish because the amish don't get computer viruses
submitted by josephkeen0 to teenagers [link] [comments]

Flatten the Curve. #49. Let's Dig into Jade Helm. AI. The Surveillance State. Internet of Things. FISA. Pentagon Preparing for Mass Civil Breakdown. What is Mob Excess Deterrent Using Silent Audio? Stay Aware and Get Ahead of the Curve.

Flatten the Curve. Part 48. Source Here
It's getting crazier day by day now, so are you following the Boy Scout motto?
On this topic, Baden-Powell says: Remember your motto, "Be Prepared." Be prepared for accidents by learning beforehand what you ought to do in the different kinds that are likely to occur. Be prepared to do that thing the moment the accident does occur. In Scouting for Boys, Baden-Powell wrote that to Be Prepared means “you are always in a state of readiness in mind and body to do your duty.”
Why should you be prepared? Because TPTB have been preparing, that’s why.
June 12, 2014: The Guardian • Pentagon preparing for mass civil breakdown. Social science is being militarised to develop 'operational tools' to target peaceful activists and protest movements Source Here
Pentagon preparing for mass civil breakdown. It seemed ludicrous back in 2014, didn't it? Inconceivable. Sure some preppers believed it, but they're always getting ready and nothing happened. Doomsday was always right around the corner, and then the next corner, and on and on. Televangelists have probably accused more politicians of being the antichrist than the number of politicians went to Epstein's Island.
But why would they be preparing for mass civil breakdown? Could it be the same reason as why the miltary is preparing for war, droughts and famines brought about by environmental collapse?
February 20, 2020: History Network • Here’s Why These Six Ancient Civilizations Mysteriously Collapsed. From the Maya to Greenland’s Vikings, check out six civilizations that seemingly disappeared without a trace. Source Here
All of these civilizations vanished because of some combination of exhausting their natural resources, drought, plauge, and the little ice age. Sound familiar? Don't tell me that the Rockefeller Foundation and BlackRock became environmentally aware out of a sense of obligation to the planet. They're setting the groundwork for what's coming down the pipe. This isn't about money anymore, this is about control and survival. Throw out the rulebook because the rules no longer apply.
Do you think the surveillance system is for your protection, or the protection of the state? Don't you think that an era of upcoming calamities will severely damage the communication networks, and thus the surveillance system? It might be prudent to consider that Starlink is being established to make the system redundant, so that they never lose track of the precious worker bees before they can be connected to the AI hive mind, right Elon? Neuralink, don't leave home without it.
But let's not forget about the wonderful world of the Internet of Things.
March 15, 2012 • More and more personal and household devices are connecting to the internet, from your television to your car navigation systems to your light switches. CIA Director David Petraeus cannot wait to spy on you through them. Earlier this month, Petraeus mused about the emergence of an "Internet of Things" -- that is, wired devices -- at a summit for In-Q-Tel, the CIA's venture capital firm. "'Transformational' is an overused word, but I do believe it properly applies to these technologies," Petraeus enthused, "particularly to their effect on clandestine tradecraft." All those new online devices are a treasure trove of data if you're a "person of interest" to the spy community. Once upon a time, spies had to place a bug in your chandelier to hear your conversation. With the rise of the "smart home," you'd be sending tagged, geolocated data that a spy agency can intercept in real time when you use the lighting app on your phone to adjust your living room's ambiance. "Items of interest will be located, identified, monitored, and remotely controlled through technologies such as radio-frequency identification, sensor networks, tiny embedded servers, and energy harvesters -- all connected to the next-generation internet using abundant, low-cost, and high-power computing," Petraeus said, "the latter now going to cloud computing, in many areas greater and greater supercomputing, and, ultimately, heading to quantum computing." Petraeus allowed that these household spy devices "change our notions of secrecy" and prompt a rethink of "our notions of identity and secrecy." All of which is true -- if convenient for a CIA director. The CIA has a lot of legal restrictions against spying on American citizens. But collecting ambient geolocation data from devices is a grayer area, especially after the 2008 carve-outs to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act. Hardware manufacturers, it turns out, store a trove of geolocation data; and some legislators have grown alarmed at how easy it is for the government to track you through your phone or PlayStation. That's not the only data exploit intriguing Petraeus. He's interested in creating new online identities for his undercover spies -- and sweeping away the "digital footprints" of agents who suddenly need to vanish. "Proud parents document the arrival and growth of their future CIA officer in all forms of social media that the world can access for decades to come," Petraeus observed. "Moreover, we have to figure out how to create the digital footprint for new identities for some officers." Source Here
December 19, 2019: New York Times • THE DATA REVIEWED BY TIMES OPINION didn’t come from a telecom or giant tech company, nor did it come from a governmental surveillance operation. It originated from a location data company, one of dozens quietly collecting precise movements using software slipped onto mobile phone apps. You’ve probably never heard of most of the companies — and yet to anyone who has access to this data, your life is an open book. They can see the places you go every moment of the day, whom you meet with or spend the night with, where you pray, whether you visit a methadone clinic, a psychiatrist’s office or a massage parlor. The Times and other news organizations have reported on smartphone tracking in the past. But never with a data set so large. Even still, this file represents just a small slice of what’s collected and sold every day by the location tracking industry — surveillance so omnipresent in our digital lives that it now seems impossible for anyone to avoid. It doesn’t take much imagination to conjure the powers such always-on surveillance can provide an authoritarian regime like China’s. Within America’s own representative democracy, citizens would surely rise up in outrage if the government attempted to mandate that every person above the age of 12 carry a tracking device that revealed their location 24 hours a day. Yet, in the decade since Apple’s App Store was created, Americans have, app by app, consented to just such a system run by private companies. Now, as the decade ends, tens of millions of Americans, including many children, find themselves carrying spies in their pockets during the day and leaving them beside their beds at night — even though the corporations that control their data are far less accountable than the government would be. Source Here
The IoT should be renamed to IoTT (Internet of Tracking Things), shouldn't it. But we can't have people figure out what's really happening, can we? It's a good thing that quantum computing isn't too close, isn’t it?
April 5, 2018: Global News • (Project Maven) Over 3,000 Google employees have a signed a petition in protest against the company’s involvement with a U.S. Department of Defense artificial intelligence (AI) project that studies imagery and could eventually be used to improve drone strikes in the battlefield. Source Here
December 12, 2019 • Palantir took over Project Maven defense contract after Google backed out. Source Here
December 29, 2020: Input • Palantir exec says its work is on par with the Manhattan Project. Comparing AI to most lethal weapon in human history isn’t comforting. SourceHere
August 14, 2020: Venture: • Google researchers use quantum computing to help improve image classification. Source Here
Hmmm. Maybe Apple will be for the little guy? They have always valued privacy rights, right?
October 2, 2013: Vice News • The hacktivist group Anonymous released a video statement with an accompanying Pastebin document claiming that there are definitive links between AuthenTec, the company that developed the iPhone 5S’s fingerprint scanner, and the US government. Source Here
An apple a day helps the NSA. Or Google. Or Microsoft. Or Amazon. Take your pick from the basket, because dem Apple's are all the same. But at least we have fundamental rights, right?
Foreign agent declaration not required • No mention of foreign agent status is made in the Protect America Act of 2007. Under prior FISA rules, persons targeted for surveillance must have been declared as foreign agents before a FISA warrant would be accorded by the FISC court.
'Quasi-anti-terrorism law' for all-forms of intelligence collection • Vastly marketed by U.S. federal and military agencies as a law to prevent terror attacks, the Protect America Act was actually a law focused on the 'acquisition' of desired intelligence information, of unspecified nature. The sole requirement is geolocation outside the United States at time of Directive invocation; pursuant to Authorization or Order invocation, surveillance Directives can be undertaken towards persons targeted for intelligence information gathering. Implementation of Directives can take place inside the United States or outside the United States. No criminal or terrorism investigation of the person need be in play at time of the Directive. All that need be required is that the target be related to an official desire for intelligence information gathering for actions on part of persons involved in surveillance to be granted full immunity from U.S. criminal or civil procedures, under Section 105B(l) of the Act.
Removal of FISA Strictures from warrant authorization; warrants not required • But the most striking aspect of the Protect America Act was the notation that any information gathering did not comprise electronic surveillance. This wording had the effect of removing FISA-related strictures from Protect America Act 2007-related Directives, serving to remove a number of protections for persons targeted, and requirements for persons working for U.S. intelligence agencies.
The acquisition does not constitute electronic surveillance • The removal of the term electronic surveillance from any Protect America Act Directive implied that the FISC court approval was no longer required, as FISA warrants were no longer required. In the place of a warrant was a certification, made by U.S. intelligence officers, which was copied to the Court. In effect, the FISC became less of a court than a registry of pre-approved certifications.Certifications (in place of FISA warrants) were able to be levied ex post facto, in writing to the Court no more than 72 hours after it was made. The Attorney General was to transmit as soon as possible to the Court a sealed copy of the certification that would remain sealed unless the certification was needed to determine the legality of the acquisition.Source Here
Oh. FISA is basically a rubber stamp. And even if it the stage play wasn't pretending to follow the script, would it matter? Who could actually stop it at this point? The cat's out of the bag and Pandoras Box is open.
Controversial debates arose as the Protect America Act was published. Constitutional lawyers and civil liberties experts expressed concerns that this Act authorized massive, wide-ranging information gathering with no oversight. Whereas it placed much focus on communications, the Act allowed for information gathering of all shapes and forms. The ACLU called it the "Police America Act" – "authorized a massive surveillance dragnet", calling the blank-check oversight provisions "meaningless," and calling them a "phony court review of secret procedures."
So the surveillance state doesn't have checks and balances anymore. The state is preparing for Massive Civil Breakdown. They keep warning us about environmental collapse. Got it? Good. Let's keep on keeping on.
The District of Columbia Organic Act of 1871 created a single new district corporation governing the entire federal territory, called the District of Columbia, thus dissolving the three major political subdivisions of the District (Port of Georgetown, the City of Washington, and Washington County) and their governments. Source Here)
The first big leap in corporate personhood from holding mere property and contract rights to possessing more expansive rights was a claim that the Equal Protection Clause applied to corporations. One of the strangest twists in American constitutional law was the moment that corporations gained personhood under the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. It occurred in a case called Santa Clara County, and what was odd was that the Supreme Court did not really even decide the matter in the actual opinion. It only appeared in a footnote to the case. What we are likely to have at the conclusion of the Supreme Court term is corporations that are empowered to spend in American elections because of Bellotti and Citizens United; corporations that can make religious objections thanks to Hobby Lobby; and if Jesner turns out as badly as I predict, corporations will be able to aid and abet human rights violations abroad with impunity. Source Here
"Having a corporation would allow people to put property into a collective ownership that could be held with perpetual existence," she says. "So it wouldn't be tied to any one person's lifespan, or subject necessarily to laws regarding inheriting property." Later on, in the United States and elsewhere, the advantages of incorporation were essential to efficient and secure economic development. Unlike partnerships, the corporation continued to exist even if a partner died; there was no unanimity required to do something; shareholders could not be sued individually, only the corporation as a whole, so investors only risked as much as they put into buying shares. Source Here
The way that the Arab Bank may get away with this alleged morally troubling behavior, even though it has a New York branch, is by reasserting the basic argument that was made in Nestle USA and Kiobel II: that the federal Alien Tort Statute was not intended to apply to corporations full stop. Given other cases in this area like Mohamad v. PLO, which held the word “individual” in the Torture Victim Protection Act means a natural person and does not impose any liability against organizations, the Arab Bank’s procorporate argument may well prevail. There are multiple federal Circuit Courts which have shot down the argument that corporations are immune from suit under the Alien Tort Statute. The lone outlier is the Second Circuit, which decided in 2010 that corporations are excused from suit in Kiobel I. This is the case that was appealed to the Supreme Court and became Kiobel II. Jesner v. Arab Bank was litigated in the Second Circuit. One question in Jesner was what exactly did Kiobel II do to Kiobel I. So far in the litigation, Jesner concluded that Kiobel I and its conclusion that corporations can’t be sued in federal court using the Alien Tort Statute remained the controlling law of the Second Circuit.
There's a reason people call lawyers snakes, it's because most of them speak with forked tounges. So the corporation isn't being held liable, but the shareholders can't be held liable either. That's too insane to even be called a Catch 22. We are literally being set up to have no recourse because there isn’t anybody who can be held responsible. Why is that important when I've been talking about the surveillance state?
July 14, 2020: The Intercept • Microsoft’s police surveillance services are often opaque because the company sells little in the way of its own policing products. It instead offers an array of “general purpose” Azure cloud services, such as machine learning and predictive analytics tools like Power BI (business intelligence) and Cognitive Services, which can be used by law enforcement agencies and surveillance vendors to build their own software or solutions. A rich array of Microsoft’s cloud-based offerings is on full display with a concept called “The Connected Officer.” Microsoft situates this concept as part of the Internet of Things, or IoT, in which gadgets are connected to online servers and thus made more useful. “The Connected Officer,” Microsoft has written, will “bring IoT to policing.” With the Internet of Things, physical objects are assigned unique identifiers and transfer data over networks in an automated fashion. If a police officer draws a gun from its holster, for example, a notification can be sent over the network to alert other officers there may be danger. Real Time Crime Centers could then locate the officer on a map and monitor the situation from a command and control center. Source Here
Uhm, I guess it's really is all connected, isn’t it?
June 18, 2020: The Guardian • How Target, Google, Bank of America and Microsoft quietly fund police through private donations. More than 25 large corporations in the past three years have contributed funding to private police foundations, new report says. Source Here
Long live the Military Industrial Techno Surveillance State. If you have nothing to hide, than you have nothing to worry about. Really? Are we still believing that line? Cause it's a load of crap. If we have nothing to worry about, then why are they worried enough to be implementing surveillance systems with corresponding units on the ground? Got your attention there, didn't I?
August 19, 2019: Big Think • Though the term "Orwellian" easily applies to such a technology, Michel's illuminating reporting touches something deeper. Numerous American cities have already been surveilled using these god-like cameras, including Gorgon Stare, a camera-enabled drone that can track individuals over a 50-square kilometer radius from 20,000 feet. Here's the real rub: the feature that allows users to pinch and zoom on Instagram is similar to what WAMI allows. Anything within those 50-square kilometers is now under the microscope. If this sounds like some futuristic tech, think again: Derivations of this camera system have been tested in numerous American cities. Say there is a big public protest. With this camera you can follow thousands of protesters back to their homes. Now you have a list of the home addresses of all the people involved in a political movement. If on their way home you witness them committing some crime—breaking a traffic regulation or frequenting a location that is known to be involved in the drug trade—you can use that surveillance data against them to essentially shut them up. That's why we have laws that prevent the use of surveillance technologies because it is human instinct to abuse them. That's why we need controls. Source Here
Want to know more about the Gorgon Stare? Flatten the Curve. Part 12. Source Here
Now, I'm not sure if you remember or know any Greek Mythology, but the Gorgons were three sisters, and one sister had Snakes on her head (she wasn't a lawyer) and she turned people to stone when she looked at them.
MEDUSA (Mob Excess Deterrent Using Silent Audio) is a directed-energy non-lethal weapon designed by WaveBand Corporation in 2003-2004 for temporary personnel incapacitation. The weapon is based on the microwave auditory effect resulting in a strong sound sensation in the human head when it is subject to certain kinds of pulsed/modulated microwave radiation. The developers claimed that through the combination of pulse parameters and pulse power, it is possible to raise the auditory sensation to a “discomfort” level, deterring personnel from entering a protected perimeter or, if necessary, temporarily incapacitating particular individuals. In 2005, Sierra Nevada Corporation acquired WaveBand Corporation.
Ok. Get it? The Gorgon eye in the sky stares at you while the Medusa makes you immobile. Not good, but at least it'll just freeze you in your tracks.
July 6, 2008: Gizmodo • The Sierra Nevada Corporation claimed this week that it is ready to begin production on the MEDUSA, a damned scary ray gun that uses the "microwave audio effect" to implant sounds and perhaps even specific messages inside people's heads. Short for Mob Excess Deterrent Using Silent Audio, MEDUSA creates the audio effect with short microwave pulses. The pulses create a shockwave inside the skull that's detected by the ears, and basically makes you think you're going balls-to-the-wall batshit insane. Source Here
Uhm. And drive you insane.
July 26, 2008: Gizmodo • The MEDUSA crowd control ray gun we reported on earlier this month sounded like some pretty amazing-and downright scary-technology. Using the microwave auditory effect, the beam, in theory, would have put sounds and voice-like noises in your head, thereby driving you away from the area. Crowd control via voices in your head. Sounds cool. However, it turns out that the beam would actually kill you before any of that happy stuff started taking place, most likely by frying or cooking your brain inside your skull. Can you imagine if this thing made it out into the field? Awkward! Source Here
Annnnnnnndddddd it'll kill you.
Guys, they're prepared. They've been prepared. They're ready. Remember the Doomsday Bunkers? The military moving into Cheyenne Mountain? Deep Underground Military Bunkers? The rapid rolling out of 5G? BITCOIN and UBI so neatly inserted into our minds over the last five years? They've directly told us to have three months of supplies in our homes. 2020 isn't going to be an anomaly? It's the start of the collapse of our natural resources. Take a look on Reddit and all the posts about crazy weather. Cyanobacteria blooms killing dogs and people. Toxic Super Pollution caused by atmospheric inversions killing people. This isn’t normal, this is New Normal. And they know it. They've known it for a while. Let me show you one last thing before I wrap it up.
From the earliest Chinese dynasties to the present, the jade deposits most used were not only those of Khotan in the Western Chinese province of Xinjiang but other parts of China as well, such as Lantian, Shaanxi.
Remember, words matter. Look at Gorgon Stare and Medusa. They don't randomly grab names out of a hat, or pick them because they think it sounds dystopian. They pick words for a reason.
July 7, 2017: The Warzone • There only appears to be one official news story on this exercise at all and it's available on the website of Air Mobility Command’s Eighteenth Air Force, situated at Joint Base Charleston. At the time of writing, a google shows that there were more than a half dozen more copies on other Air Force pages, as well as number of photographs. For some reason, someone appears to have taken these offline or otherwise broken all the links. Using Google to search the Defense Video Imagery Distribution System, which is the main U.S. military's public affairs hub, brings up more broken links. Oh, and unless there's been some sort of mistake, JADE HELM actually stands for the amazingly obtuse Joint Assistance for Deployment Execution Homeland Eradication of Local Militants. A separate web search for this phrase does not turn up any other results. Source Here
Now, using an acronym that indicates training to Eradicate Local Militants seems pretty dumb. It may be used in that manner if environmental collapse triggers riots, but i don't think they would warn everyone ahead of time, do you? So I dug a little bit more.
Joint Assistant for Development and Execution (JADE) is a U.S. military system used for planning the deployment of military forces in crisis situations. The U.S. military developed this automated planning software system in order to expedite the creation of the detailed planning needed to deploy military forces for a military operation. JADE uses Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology combining user input, a knowledge base of stored plans, and suggestions by the system to provide the ability to develop large-scale and complex plans in minimal time. JADE is a knowledge-based system that uses highly structured information that takes advantage of data hierarchies. An official 2016 document approved for public release titled Human Systems Roadmap Review describes plans to create autonomous weapon systems that analyze social media and make decisions, including the use of lethal force, with minimal human involvement. This type of system is referred to as a Lethal Autonomous Weapon System (LAWS). The name "JADE" comes from the jade green color seen on the island of Oahu in Hawaii where the U.S. Pacific Command (PACOM) is headquartered.
PACOM? Why isn't that command group responsible for the South China Sea?
Formerly known as United States Pacific Command (USPACOM) since its inception, the command was renamed to U.S. Indo-Pacific Command on 30 May 2018, in recognition of the greater emphasis on South Asia, especially India.
Now doesn't it look like Jade Helm is preparing for an invasion? And possibly insurrection later. Or at the same time? Or riots over WW3? Or food riots? And start thinking about why the laws are starting to exclude corporations? Then think about the mercenaries that are being contracted out by the government.
October 17, 2018: The Carolinan • In 2016, 75 percent of American forces were private contractors. In 2017, Erik Prince, former head of Blackwater, and Stephen Feinberg, head of Dyncorp, discussed plans for contractors completely taking over U.S. operations in Afghanistan. Although ultimately unsuccessful, it remains to be seen if the current administration will change its mind. Contractors are involved in almost every military task, such as intelligence analysis, logistics and training allied soldiers. Contractors are even involved in U.S. special ops missions. This is because contractors are essentially untraceable and unaccountable. Most are born in other countries; only 33 percent are registered U.S. citizens. Private military firms don’t have to report their actions to Congress, unlike the military or intelligence agencies. They also aren’t subject to the Freedom of Information Act, so private citizens and journalists aren’t allowed to access their internal documents. There are also no international laws to regulate private military firms. It’s been proven that many contractors are involved in illegal activities. The larger multinational companies sometimes hire local subcontractors. These contractors sometimes aren’t background-checked. A 2010 investigation by the Senate found that many subcontractors were linked to murders, kidnappings, bribery and anti-coalition activities. Some subcontractors even formed their own unlicensed mercenary groups after coalition forces leave. A 2010 House investigation showed evidence that the Department of Defense had hired local warlords for security services. In 2007, Blackwater contractors massacred 17 civilians. This eventually led Blackwater to being restructured and renamed as Academi. Source Here
Military Exercises. Private Defense Firms. No oversight. And it's all coming soon. Read more at Flatten the Curve. Part 20. Upcoming war and catastrophes. Source Here
Nah. I'm just fear mongering and Doomscrolling again.
Heads up and eyes open. Talk soon.
submitted by biggreekgeek to conspiracy [link] [comments]

استخراج بیت کوین با کامپیوتر کوانتومی | کامپیوتر کوانتومی و بیت کوین - زوم ارز

کوانتوم چیست ؟ دستگاه های رایانه‌ای کوانتوم چه مزیتی در استخراج‌ بیت‌ کوین دارند؟ عملکرد رایانه‌های کوانتوم چگونه است ؟ آیا خطراتی برای رمز ارزها دارد ؟
دستگاه‌ های هوشمند کوانتومی بسیار هوشمند تر از کامپیوترهای امروزی عمل می کنند سرعت آنها فوق العاده است. آنها معادلات سنگین و پیچیده و سخت را خیلی سریع تر از کامپیوترهای امروزی حل می‌کنند و رمز ارز ها را به آسانی رمزگشایی خواهند کرد. با وجود آنها استخراج‌ بیت‌ کوین خیلی آسان خواهد شد. بیت کوین های استخراج نشده خیلی راحت قابل دستیابی می شوند.
استخراج بیت کوین که توسط ماینر ها انجام می شود همان پاداش بلاک است که در ازای انجام محاسبات و معماهای رمزنگاری دریافت می شود محققان گفته‌اند انجام محاسباتی که با پیشرفته‌ ترین کامپیوترهای امروزی ۱۰ هزار سال انجام می‌شود، با این دستگاههای هوشمند کوانتومی در سه دقیقه و ۲۰ ثانیه قابل انجام است . و اگر حتی یک ماینر به دستگاه هوشمند کوانتومی جهت استخراج بیت کوین دسترسی پیدا کند بر کل شبکه مسلط خواهد شد و شبکه را در معرض خطر قرار خواهد داد.
دستگاه هوشمند کوانتومی یا کامپیوترکوانتومی ( quantum computer ) ماشین هوشمندی است که از قوانین کوانتوم برای ذخیره سازی و انجام عملیات رویدادها و محاسبات استفاده می‌کنند. برهم نهی(superposition)، تداخل (interference), Entanglement، عدم موجبیت (non determinism)، نا جایگزیدگی (non locality) و تکثیر ناپذیری (non clonability)پدیده های فیزیکی هستند که در عملکرد این دستگاههای هوشمند کوانتومی از آنها استفاده شده است.
فهرست مطالب
https://www.zoomarz.com/bitcoin-extraction-with-quantum-smart-devices
submitted by zoomarz98 to u/zoomarz98 [link] [comments]

[ Bitcoin ] Technical: Taproot: Why Activate?

Topic originally posted in Bitcoin by almkglor [link]
This is a follow-up on https://old.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/hqzp14/technical_the_path_to_taproot_activation/
Taproot! Everybody wants it!! But... you might ask yourself: sure, everybody else wants it, but why would I, sovereign Bitcoin HODLer, want it? Surely I can be better than everybody else because I swapped XXX fiat for Bitcoin unlike all those nocoiners?
And it is important for you to know the reasons why you, o sovereign Bitcoiner, would want Taproot activated. After all, your nodes (or the nodes your wallets use, which if you are SPV, you hopefully can pester to your wallet vendoimplementor about) need to be upgraded in order for Taproot activation to actually succeed instead of becoming a hot sticky mess.
First, let's consider some principles of Bitcoin.
I'm sure most of us here would agree that the above are very important principles of Bitcoin and that these are principles we would not be willing to remove. If anything, we would want those principles strengthened (especially the last one, financial privacy, which current Bitcoin is only sporadically strong with: you can get privacy, it just requires effort to do so).
So, how does Taproot affect those principles?

Taproot and Your /Coins

Most HODLers probably HODL their coins in singlesig addresses. Sadly, switching to Taproot would do very little for you (it gives a mild discount at spend time, at the cost of a mild increase in fee at receive time (paid by whoever sends to you, so if it's a self-send from a P2PKH or bech32 address, you pay for this); mostly a wash).
(technical details: a Taproot output is 1 version byte + 32 byte public key, while a P2WPKH (bech32 singlesig) output is 1 version byte + 20 byte public key hash, so the Taproot output spends 12 bytes more; spending from a P2WPKH requires revealing a 32-byte public key later, which is not needed with Taproot, and Taproot signatures are about 9 bytes smaller than P2WPKH signatures, but the 32 bytes plus 9 bytes is divided by 4 because of the witness discount, so it saves about 11 bytes; mostly a wash, it increases blockweight by about 1 virtual byte, 4 weight for each Taproot-output-input, compared to P2WPKH-output-input).
However, as your HODLings grow in value, you might start wondering if multisignature k-of-n setups might be better for the security of your savings. And it is in multisignature that Taproot starts to give benefits!
Taproot switches to using Schnorr signing scheme. Schnorr makes key aggregation -- constructing a single public key from multiple public keys -- almost as trivial as adding numbers together. "Almost" because it involves some fairly advanced math instead of simple boring number adding, but hey when was the last time you added up your grocery list prices by hand huh?
With current P2SH and P2WSH multisignature schemes, if you have a 2-of-3 setup, then to spend, you need to provide two different signatures from two different public keys. With Taproot, you can create, using special moon math, a single public key that represents your 2-of-3 setup. Then you just put two of your devices together, have them communicate to each other (this can be done airgapped, in theory, by sending QR codes: the software to do this is not even being built yet, but that's because Taproot hasn't activated yet!), and they will make a single signature to authorize any spend from your 2-of-3 address. That's 73 witness bytes -- 18.25 virtual bytes -- of signatures you save!
And if you decide that your current setup with 1-of-1 P2PKH / P2WPKH addresses is just fine as-is: well, that's the whole point of a softfork: backwards-compatibility; you can receive from Taproot users just fine, and once your wallet is updated for Taproot-sending support, you can send to Taproot users just fine as well!
(P2WPKH and P2WSH -- SegWit v0 -- addresses start with bc1q; Taproot -- SegWit v1 --- addresses start with bc1p, in case you wanted to know the difference; in bech32 q is 0, p is 1)
Now how about HODLers who keep all, or some, of their coins on custodial services? Well, any custodial service worth its salt would be doing at least 2-of-3, or probably something even bigger, like 11-of-15. So your custodial service, if it switched to using Taproot internally, could save a lot more (imagine an 11-of-15 getting reduced from 11 signatures to just 1!), which --- we can only hope! --- should translate to lower fees and better customer service from your custodial service!
So I think we can say, very accurately, that the Bitcoin principle --- that YOU are in control of your money --- can only be helped by Taproot (if you are doing multisignature), and, because P2PKH and P2WPKH remain validly-usable addresses in a Taproot future, will not be harmed by Taproot. Its benefit to this principle might be small (it mostly only benefits multisignature users) but since it has no drawbacks with this (i.e. singlesig users can continue to use P2WPKH and P2PKH still) this is still a nice, tidy win!
(even singlesig users get a minor benefit, in that multisig users will now reduce their blockchain space footprint, so that fees can be kept low for everybody; so for example even if you have your single set of private keys engraved on titanium plates sealed in an airtight box stored in a safe buried in a desert protected by angry nomads riding giant sandworms because you're the frickin' Kwisatz Haderach, you still gain some benefit from Taproot)
And here's the important part: if P2PKH/P2WPKH is working perfectly fine with you and you decide to never use Taproot yourself, Taproot will not affect you detrimentally. First do no harm!

Taproot and Your Contracts

No one is an island, no one lives alone. Give and you shall receive. You know: by trading with other people, you can gain expertise in some obscure little necessity of the world (and greatly increase your productivity in that little field), and then trade the products of your expertise for necessities other people have created, all of you thereby gaining gains from trade.
So, contracts, which are basically enforceable agreements that facilitate trading with people who you do not personally know and therefore might not trust.
Let's start with a simple example. You want to buy some gewgaws from somebody. But you don't know them personally. The seller wants the money, you want their gewgaws, but because of the lack of trust (you don't know them!! what if they're scammers??) neither of you can benefit from gains from trade.
However, suppose both of you know of some entity that both of you trust. That entity can act as a trusted escrow. The entity provides you security: this enables the trade, allowing both of you to get gains from trade.
In Bitcoin-land, this can be implemented as a 2-of-3 multisignature. The three signatories in the multisgnature would be you, the gewgaw seller, and the escrow. You put the payment for the gewgaws into this 2-of-3 multisignature address.
Now, suppose it turns out neither of you are scammers (whaaaat!). You receive the gewgaws just fine and you're willing to pay up for them. Then you and the gewgaw seller just sign a transaction --- you and the gewgaw seller are 2, sufficient to trigger the 2-of-3 --- that spends from the 2-of-3 address to a singlesig the gewgaw seller wants (or whatever address the gewgaw seller wants).
But suppose some problem arises. The seller gave you gawgews instead of gewgaws. Or you decided to keep the gewgaws but not sign the transaction to release the funds to the seller. In either case, the escrow is notified, and if it can sign with you to refund the funds back to you (if the seller was a scammer) or it can sign with the seller to forward the funds to the seller (if you were a scammer).
Taproot helps with this: like mentioned above, it allows multisignature setups to produce only one signature, reducing blockchain space usage, and thus making contracts --- which require multiple people, by definition, you don't make contracts with yourself --- is made cheaper (which we hope enables more of these setups to happen for more gains from trade for everyone, also, moon and lambos).
(technology-wise, it's easier to make an n-of-n than a k-of-n, making a k-of-n would require a complex setup involving a long ritual with many communication rounds between the n participants, but an n-of-n can be done trivially with some moon math. You can, however, make what is effectively a 2-of-3 by using a three-branch SCRIPT: either 2-of-2 of you and seller, OR 2-of-2 of you and escrow, OR 2-of-2 of escrow and seller. Fortunately, Taproot adds a facility to embed a SCRIPT inside a public key, so you can have a 2-of-2 Taprooted address (between you and seller) with a SCRIPT branch that can instead be spent with 2-of-2 (you + escrow) OR 2-of-2 (seller + escrow), which implements the three-branched SCRIPT above. If neither of you are scammers (hopefully the common case) then you both sign using your keys and never have to contact the escrow, since you are just using the escrow public key without coordinating with them (because n-of-n is trivial but k-of-n requires setup with communication rounds), so in the "best case" where both of you are honest traders, you also get a privacy boost, in that the escrow never learns you have been trading on gewgaws, I mean ewww, gawgews are much better than gewgaws and therefore I now judge you for being a gewgaw enthusiast, you filthy gewgawer).

Taproot and Your Contracts, Part 2: Cryptographic Boogaloo

Now suppose you want to buy some data instead of things. For example, maybe you have some closed-source software in trial mode installed, and want to pay the developer for the full version. You want to pay for an activation code.
This can be done, today, by using an HTLC. The developer tells you the hash of the activation code. You pay to an HTLC, paying out to the developer if it reveals the preimage (the activation code), or refunding the money back to you after a pre-agreed timeout. If the developer claims the funds, it has to reveal the preimage, which is the activation code, and you can now activate your software. If the developer does not claim the funds by the timeout, you get refunded.
And you can do that, with HTLCs, today.
Of course, HTLCs do have problems:
Fortunately, with Schnorr (which is enabled by Taproot), we can now use the Scriptless Script constuction by Andrew Poelstra. This Scriptless Script allows a new construction, the PTLC or Pointlocked Timelocked Contract. Instead of hashes and preimages, just replace "hash" with "point" and "preimage" with "scalar".
Or as you might know them: "point" is really "public key" and "scalar" is really a "private key". What a PTLC does is that, given a particular public key, the pointlocked branch can be spent only if the spender reveals the private key of the given private key to you.
Another nice thing with PTLCs is that they are deniable. What appears onchain is just a single 2-of-2 signature between you and the developemanufacturer. It's like a magic trick. This signature has no special watermarks, it's a perfectly normal signature (the pledge). However, from this signature, plus some datta given to you by the developemanufacturer (known as the adaptor signature) you can derive the private key of a particular public key you both agree on (the turn). Anyone scraping the blockchain will just see signatures that look just like every other signature, and as long as nobody manages to hack you and get a copy of the adaptor signature or the private key, they cannot get the private key behind the public key (point) that the pointlocked branch needs (the prestige).
(Just to be clear, the public key you are getting the private key from, is distinct from the public key that the developemanufacturer will use for its funds. The activation key is different from the developer's onchain Bitcoin key, and it is the activation key whose private key you will be learning, not the developer's/manufacturer's onchain Bitcoin key).
So:
Taproot lets PTLCs exist onchain because they enable Schnorr, which is a requirement of PTLCs / Scriptless Script.
(technology-wise, take note that Scriptless Script works only for the "pointlocked" branch of the contract; you need normal Script, or a pre-signed nLockTimed transaction, for the "timelocked" branch. Since Taproot can embed a script, you can have the Taproot pubkey be a 2-of-2 to implement the Scriptless Script "pointlocked" branch, then have a hidden script that lets you recover the funds with an OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY after the timeout if the seller does not claim the funds.)

Quantum Quibbles!

Now if you were really paying attention, you might have noticed this parenthetical:
(technical details: a Taproot output is 1 version byte + 32 byte public key, while a P2WPKH (bech32 singlesig) output is 1 version byte + 20 byte public key hash...)
So wait, Taproot uses raw 32-byte public keys, and not public key hashes? Isn't that more quantum-vulnerable??
Well, in theory yes. In practice, they probably are not.
It's not that hashes can be broken by quantum computes --- they're still not. Instead, you have to look at how you spend from a P2WPKH/P2PKH pay-to-public-key-hash.
When you spend from a P2PKH / P2WPKH, you have to reveal the public key. Then Bitcoin hashes it and checks if this matches with the public-key-hash, and only then actually validates the signature for that public key.
So an unconfirmed transaction, floating in the mempools of nodes globally, will show, in plain sight for everyone to see, your public key.
(public keys should be public, that's why they're called public keys, LOL)
And if quantum computers are fast enough to be of concern, then they are probably fast enough that, in the several minutes to several hours from broadcast to confirmation, they have already cracked the public key that is openly broadcast with your transaction. The owner of the quantum computer can now replace your unconfirmed transaction with one that pays the funds to itself. Even if you did not opt-in RBF, miners are still incentivized to support RBF on RBF-disabled transactions.
So the extra hash is not as significant a protection against quantum computers as you might think. Instead, the extra hash-and-compare needed is just extra validation effort.
Further, if you have ever, in the past, spent from the address, then there exists already a transaction indelibly stored on the blockchain, openly displaying the public key from which quantum computers can derive the private key. So those are still vulnerable to quantum computers.
For the most part, the cryptographers behind Taproot (and Bitcoin Core) are of the opinion that quantum computers capable of cracking Bitcoin pubkeys are unlikely to appear within a decade or two.
So:
For now, the homomorphic and linear properties of elliptic curve cryptography provide a lot of benefits --- particularly the linearity property is what enables Scriptless Script and simple multisignature (i.e. multisignatures that are just 1 signature onchain). So it might be a good idea to take advantage of them now while we are still fairly safe against quantum computers. It seems likely that quantum-safe signature schemes are nonlinear (thus losing these advantages).

Summary

I Wanna Be The Taprooter!

So, do you want to help activate Taproot? Here's what you, mister sovereign Bitcoin HODLer, can do!

But I Hate Taproot!!

That's fine!

Discussions About Taproot Activation

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Quantum-Proof Encryption?

Safing team -
What are your thoughts on so-called quantum-proof encryption?
  1. Is it possible?
  2. Are you planning on making it at some point?
  3. This would put you on the map.
Google has let slip recently that they have a quantum computer. Many people believe it's "not there yet", and won't be for a long time.
Here's a different perspective.
Most people don't understand what quantum computers are. They probably just think it's next-gen or something harmless like that, because they simply don't have a category for it.
However, for those who do understand what it is - in my case, I think I kind of understand it - find its implications completely terrifying and overwhelming.
Emotions are a funny thing. If I were to take the average Joe on the street and explain to them about how data tracking works, they'd be absolutely horrified.
For example, I could sit someone down and explain to them about how Google is invisibly present on nearly every website they visit. I could demonstrate this using uMatrix in real time. "Look! Here they are. (Click to the next website.) Here they are. (Click to the next website.) Here they are again. (Click.) Again."
And when they first realize this, they are horrified. I've seen it over and over again, because I tell anyone who will listen. They are so horrified, in fact, that their defense mechanisms kick in. The most common defense mechanism is to simply shut it off and forget it. They'll say, "Oh well, what can I do about it? Who cares what I buy on Amazon? I have nothing to hide. I'm boring. I don't do drugs, I'm not having an affair, I don't break the law."
But some have a different defense mechanism. They seek to understand it, in order to protect themselves. Here's a threat, so I have to "know thy enemy". These are the privacy geeks, who dive into this head first. You can see them on the privacy subs. They're trying to wrap their heads around it.
But eventually, something happens to them too. Eventually, they realize that the problem is far worse than even their fears imagined. They become paranoid and take extreme measures. Some go very far down this road.
Eventually, the paranoia leaves them exhausted and they reach their limit. They're spending half their waking moments studying it, following it, trying to understand it, trying to set their devices up with the latest and greatest thing that they think will protect them.
The more stable among them eventually realize that their paranoia is toxic, and they realize that they have to strike a balance. They know they have to begin to pick their battles and make some compromises. They realize their "enemy" is too powerful for them.
There is one thing, however, that people have come to trust. Encryption. If their traffic is encrypted, they "know" it's "safe". VPNs. The Tor browser and its layers of encryption.
But quantum computers could change that. I understand quantum computers like this...
Imagine a child at a sit-down restaurant with a kids' menu. On the back of that kids' menu is a maze. They try out one path, it reaches a dead end. So they go back and try a different path, but that too is a dead end. They keep trying paths until they finally get to the end of the maze.
Computers perform calculations that work similarly to the maze. They try one solution, then another, then another, then another, until finally, they get the solution. The attempts are linear: one solution attempt after another. Think of movies where they depict a computer trying to break a password. They show all the characters in the password, and they're flashing through all possible characters. Then suddenly, one of the characters stops flashing. That character is a T. The next one suddenly stops, and that's a 4. On and on it goes, until all the characters are locked in place.
This is how Bitcoin mining works, for example. It takes a LOT of processing power to complete a calculation that produces one Bitcoin. This helps control the supply of Bitcoins. (I wonder who's collecting these solutions?)
But a quantum computer doesn't work like that. It's not linear. A quantum computer can attempt every possible solution at once. In the maze, it can attempt every possible path at once. It can crack even a very long, very complex password instantly. It can mine a Bitcoin in a moment. Snap your fingers. Bitcoin. Snap your fingers again. Another Bitcoin. One computer. Nearly instantaneously.
A quantum computer could be powerful enough to break encryption in real time, no matter how complex. This capability is so powerful it blows the mind. And then there's DNA-based processors, which can multiply, which also allows them to try every solution at once. It just multiplies as many times as necessary. If quantum computers are finite, DNA computers could theoretically be infinite. I think. (But I won't pretend to totally grasp what we're talking about here.)
A quantum-based or DNA-based laptop could theoretically be more powerful than all the processors in the entire world on every computer, including super computers and all the servers, combined.
I have brought this up in privacy forums. The standard, defense-mechanism-based answer is, "But that's YEARS away! The capability just isn't there yet! Look at what the publicly-available information says about it!"
But we're talking about Google. They have secrets, don't they? They're invisibly present on almost every website we visit. Their power stems from the fact that most people have no idea that that's true. How it all works is proprietary. There's a lot of guessing going on. No one knows for sure.
But if Google has ANY secrets at all, wouldn't they keep the capabilities of their quantum computer secret? Isn't it kind of surprising that the public knows (and has already forgotten) that Google has a functioning quantum computer? So does IBM. What capabilities do these possess, which the public knows nothing about? I assume the capability is greater than the public knows.
Right now, Google is "cooperating" with China on AI. It is publicly known that China has made tremendous advances in quantum computing. Connect the dots.
A quantum computer, fully functioning, could break encryption in real time. With the resources Google has, especially when combined with the resources of the Chinese government, imagine what they could do. Google already has all the data. They could decrypt it ALL. And they could share it with the Chinese government, who I'm sure would be willing to pay any price for it.
If Google is willing to cooperate on AI with China, where's their red-line as a company? What line will they say, "Oh no, we wouldn't do that. It would be unethical." China has actual concentration camps. Just like the Nazis once did. They put Muslims there. They force people to have abortions, repress religions, and even force some people to donate their organs. At least, there seems to be solid evidence that these things are occurring. This is a country ruled by sociopaths who seek to take over the world.
Why would anyone ever trust Google to "don't be evil", when clearly they have no ethical scruples whatsoever? Google, as a company, is a sociopath. Completely heartless. They are willing to exploit people in secret and cooperate with the Chinese communist party and their military. Why? To make money. If that's true, what else would they be willing to do?
I don't know if there is or even could be any such thing as quantum-proof encryption. I'm extremely skeptical, personally. But if it does exist, or could exist, then we need it. And we need it like 10 years ago.
So - does it exist? Could it exist? Could SPN employ it?
submitted by On3KI9oC9I7ERmJI to safing [link] [comments]

Strengthening Data Security Using Blockchain

https://www.cxotoday.com/news-analysis/strengthening-data-security-using-blockchain/
With businesses across the world riding the digital wave, data will be a key competitive differentiator in their successful transformation stories. Besides the massive data deluge, with the advent of hybrid cloud business models today, data goes beyond the perimeter of an organization. While data leaks and hacks can prove to be hazardous for any organization, it would especially be damaging in cases where data is centralized. This leads to a powerful shift in the paradigm for decentralized and distributed ledger technology (DLT) applications.
Security ‘hexad’ using blockchain
Blockchain is a foundational technology that has the potential to revolutionize the world, similar to what the internet did in the past. The information security triad can be enhanced to a ‘hexad’ with blockchain-based decentralized data security for enterprises.
The decentralized immutable distributed-ledger technology on a peer-to-peer (P2P) network based on cryptographic concepts and consensus algorithms uses a cryptographic one-way hash, internally which helps to identify any alteration done to the blockchain data making it more transparent, reliable, trustable and independent also ensuring data integrity.
Asymmetric encryption with public-private key pair is used for making transactions on the ledger providing non-repudiation, and accountability. Since data is distributed on a P2P network (ensuring availability), there’s no single point of failure making it difficult for hackers to tamper data at multiple places. Consensus algorithms, or conditions on which a group agrees to put transactions in blockchain, help in decentralized distribution of power and forms the base of trust.
Permissioned blockchain (example Hyper-ledger Fabric) are kind of hybrid models where networks require participants to have authorization for access thus ensuring privacy. These could be used by multiple organizations participating in the blockchain network forming a consortium in a decentralized way while maintaining confidentiality. Fine-grained access control and data sharing mechanisms ensure that confidential data is shared only among the intended audience. While permission-less blockchain (example Bitcoin) have data publicly available to view, it would have computing intensive or complex powerful consensus algorithms to validate and update ledgers in order to deter DOS (Denial-of-service) attacks.
Data once entered in a blockchain network is immutable, i.e. not changeable until more than one-third of the network is compromised, which would ideally not be the case in a P2P distributed network. This also helps in establishing trust between unknown parties without the need for intermediaries, further reducing transactional and operational costs.
When data goes beyond the perimeter, organizations can be sure that data is unaltered, not accessed by cloud vendors or anyone else ensuring privacy and integrity. Confidential agreements could be on blockchain using smart contracts which execute automatically when consensus conditions are met. Any litigation or disputes raised could be easily settled real-time, thus establishing accountability. The features in the hexad, along with immutable data in blockchain, make auditing easy and reliable.
Reducing cyberattacks and enhancing security
When a request is placed on a browser, it sends it to a network of computers called Domain Naming System (DNS). DNS is like a phonebook for the internet. It resolves the website to an IP address which helps in connecting to the right server on the internet. Typically, DNS servers are centralized by nature. Making DNS decentralized and distributed using blockchain could reduce cyberattacks and enhance security.
Multi-layered security frameworks based on blockchain technology decentralize the risk and reduce sophisticated phishing attacks for organizations. Encrypted data, decentralized storage and publicly visible ledgers (for transparency) can instill a new set of cybersecurity priorities for governments and other public institutions, while private and permissioned blockchain help in transforming the enterprise data operational models.
Identity verification procedures provided by authorized institutions on blockchain network help for secure and reliable validation and sharing of information. Device identity on blockchain for IoT security can reduce device impersonation and spoofing attacks. End users who worry about the security of their digital footprint can be self-sovereign, i.e., own data and share on need basis on a decentralized internet using blockchain. This also makes customers active stakeholders and can change how organizations handle information from everybody who interacts with their network, transforming the business models.
Blockchain- now and the future
Hyper-ledger umbrella is a global open source collaborative effort hosted by the Linux Foundation for multiple blockchain projects, libraries and tools for various enterprise and industrial deployments. Blockstack is an open source blockchain-based decentralized computing platform which provides a full- stack alternative to traditional cloud computing for building secure decentralized applications.
US space-agency NASA utilizes blockchain technology open source permissioned network for tracking air-traffic to curb cyberattacks on aerospace agents. This is to enhance privacy and security of aircraft data for corporate and military flight operations, helping in preventing unwarranted public access to confidential data. NASA has also signed up for an autonomous spacecraft project based on blockchain along with AI, networking and sensor-based technologies.
Certain quantum computing techniques have the potential to break the cryptography algorithms used in blockchain but less likely in permission blockchain since the participants are verified and authorized. The solution is to build quantum-resistant ledgers. Enterprises adopting this technology need to pick appropriate use cases to get maximum benefit.
In the future, world trade, tokenization of valuable assets, self-sovereign digital identity, public sector facilities and benefits, health-care data, strengthening security, congruence of IoT, AI and blockchain for autonomous decentralized products and services are likely to have wide adoption in real-time based on blockchain technology.
Enterprises with hybrid cloud models adopting blockchain for data security can be confident about their data security even beyond the perimeter, and ensure required audit and compliances with reduced costs. The disruptive and transformative potential of blockchain technology in enhancing data security will enable the emergence of new models, helping in digitally transforming the ecosystem for the better of the world.
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Summary of Tau Chain Monthly Update and QandA - April 2020

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=92aG_W2AVU8New people join the team: Karim, Professor Carmi, Mo'az as well as Kilian, who joined last month
Karim as Software Director, experience in software starts up having founded and sold two companies. Has both technical and entrepreneurial background.
Professor Carmi - background in quantum mechanics, writing the whitepaper. Understands and agrees with Ohad's design of Tau from a technical perspective (3 laws of laws etc.)
Mo'az - Artistic design and rebranding of idni, Tau and Agoras Live (logos, website etc.) Impressive initial designs showcased.
Kilian - Community Manager. Slide presentation of community survey results. We need to attract new users by providing simpler explanations. Others areas to improve include marketing, exchange listings, business and university partnerships, translations etc. Focusing on ideas that will drive community growth (contests, bounties, etc.)
Very open to feedback, ideas and contributions.
Tomas - finished work related to memory mapping of BDD vector (unsure, low audio). Now working on memory mapping for Windows and creating an executable. Began work on documenting parts of TML.
Andre - working on initial steps of implementing knowledge market and Agoras Live (video calls). Demonstration of initial layout of how people can be paid in AGRS for creating videos or providing live video feedback. Many features including creating a wallet automatically at account creation etc.
Juan - splitting efforts between TMl and Agoras. Work continues on compound terms and arithmetics. Dragan also continues work on dynamic bdds. Working on payment infrastructure on the Agoras side.
Fola - working on new logos, hires, websites. Still looking at exchanges.
Ohad - In reply to prof Carmi points out the 3 laws of laws are axiomizations of the language to describe Tau itself as well as the internet of languages. Continue work on supporting systems of equations.
QandA
Q: If Bitcoin was hosted on Tau, how would they determine the BTC blocksize? Would it still result in forks?
Ohad: Forks are a consequence when we reach a point where disagreements cannot be resolved. Discussions are the best way to resolve disagreements.
Q: How will 'questions' be priced in the market? A type of auction or are there non monetary rewards or all left to the asker?
Fola and Ohad: All left to the asker. Can be barter or traded with other knowledge.
Q: What type of device would you need to run Tau? Can I use Raspberry Pi?
Ohad: Designs will allow Tau to be run on many popular devices. More platform specific areas will be separated.
Q: When can you offer a usable product?
Ohad: Roadmap will be updated to reflect Agoras being worked in parallel with Tau, with certain features to come out before Tau is ready, eg. AgorasLive
Q: Can we get on more reliable exchange? Is the project still active?
Fola: Yes, 12 active team members. Whitebit was added recently. After getting lukewarm reception from the community, we decided against listing on HitBTC. Focus will be on product development for now.
Q: Are there limitation to code synthesis?
Ohad: Yes, all logical systems have limitations. Most questions in the universe are too difficult to be practically solvable. But most problems in practice are likely solvable. Most importantly, we as humans don't have any more advantage over what's mathematically possible. The computer will have limitations, but it will certainly do better than us.
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Quantum Computers and Threat to Crypto - Google Quantum Supremacy - Hindi Bitcoin Q&A: THE BIGGEST THREAT TO BITCOIN THAT NO ONE IS TALKING ABOUT? Quantum Computing to destroy BTC? Bitcoin Price Falls on Panic over Quantum Computers, Bakkt Failure, & Miner Exodus Can quantum computers crack bitcoin? - YouTube

3 Million Bitcoin in 2 Seconds: Google Quantum Computer Less than 3 million Bitcoin (BTC) remain to be mined, with the process expected to take around 121 years. Some allege however, that Google’s quantum computer, Sycamore, could do it in “less than 2 seconds”. "There is an extra layer of protection with Bitcoin's double hashing but assuming a quantum computer is capable of Shor on secp256k1 it's safe to assume it's also capable of Grover256. But there is one opportunity for quantum computing. Touching the Bitcoin network would almost certainly be a touch of death. Even if a quantum computer mined merely 2016 blocks, in theory this would raise the difficulty so high that regular mining equipment would take an impossibly long time to create another 2016 blocks and reduce difficulty. A 4,000 qubit quantum computer could, theoretically, crack Bitcoin's encryption in a matter of seconds. The current generation of quantum computers max out at 54 qubits. A quantum computer capable of cracking Bitcoin's encryption could be just two years away. Why quantum computer is not a formidable enemy for cryptocurrency and what to expect after implementing new technological solutions.

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Quantum Computers and Threat to Crypto - Google Quantum Supremacy - Hindi

Why Did Bitcoin Drop $1700? Price Drop Speculation, Fed Pump, Bakkt Launch & BTC Whales - Duration: 46:58. The Modern Investor 32,154 views Vitalik Buterin talks about the influence of quantum computers on bitcoin encryption and the block chain! For full video see link below. https://www.youtube.... Google says it has achieved "quantum supremacy." What does this mean? Is Bitcoin's cryptography now broken? Keep calm, carry on. This question is from the third session of MOOC 12, which took ... Google recently claim Quantum Supremacy with 53 Qbits quantum computer. In this video we discuss what it means for crypto and talk about the threats and mitigations Reference Links: 1. Bitcoin and ... Is quantum computing a threat to Bitcoin? How can Bitcoin become more secure against a quantum computing attack? Will this upgrade require moving coins to ne...

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